The Historic White Pass & Yukon Route Railroad

Learn about the historical start of Skagway

“Born in the Klondike Gold Rush of 1898, the White Pass & Yukon Route is a rare story in the history of railroad building.” -All Aboard Magazine

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Skagway, also referred to as the Garden City of Alaska, is located at the northern tip of Alaska’s Inside Passage, just 100 miles northeast of Gustavus. In 1900 when the city was established, the population reached 3,117 and was the second-largest settlement in Alaska. Now, Skagway’s year round residents almost double Gustavus at 850 people. It serves as restored gold rush town with a historical significance for tourists to experience, and is the headquarters of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park.

The History

In his search to find uncharted land into Interior Canada for a survey company, Captain William Moore was the first non-native settler in Skagway. He arrival in 1887 is credited with the discovery of the White Pass route into Interior Canada. Only nine years later in August, gold was discovered in the Klondike by George Carmack and two Indian companions, Skookum Jim and Dawson Charlie. By 1897, boatloads of prospectors made their way eagerly to this new opportunity. Not two months following those hopeful prospectors and dreamers, the landscape had grown into a lively city with a population of about 20,000.

Though the gold found by Carmack and his companions was a minimal amount, it triggered a massive movement and forever changed the course of history in Southeast Alaska.

Exploring the City

The city of Skagway prides itself on preserving its history. The main shopping street, Broadway Street, features building fronts similar to what you would have seen back in the 1890’s. A walking tour of various lengths can be taken to familiarize yourself with this delightful town. Several National Park Service Buildings help you learn about the gold rush and all the men endured with the hope of striking it rich.

If you have time be sure to head out to the Skagway cemetery. You will be able to see Frank Reid’s headstone inside the cemetery and “Soapy” Smith’s grave outside the cemetery. You don’t know the Reid/Smith story. No trip to Skagway is complete without learning about their gun battle and how it helped Skagway become a peaceful and quite town.

The Train Ride

 

When our guests go in the train they usually take the Summit Excursion up to White Pass and then back down to Skagway. The White Pass & Yukon Route climbs from sea level in Skagway to almost 3,000 feet at the summit. Imagine being on the same type of trains up the same route the gold miners were traveling in their search for gold.

REMEMBER: Weather in Southeast Alaska is unpredictable, and can present an obstacle to flights and activities. The Bear Track Inn is not responsible for any costs incurred or activities missed due to weather related delays. We highly recommend trip insurance.

Read more about the railroad here.

Humpback Whales in Glacier Bay

The most common and most exciting encounter guests will have while on the water here in Glacier Bay is with the majestic humpback whale.

Humpback whales are known for their massive migrations from the southern Pacific waters of Mexico and Hawaii, to the northern waters of Alaska and Antarctica (though they can be found traveling through all of the major oceans). Their known to travel as far as 16,000 miles, with mature males leading the way. Glacier Bay is a general “hot spot” of whale feeding activity, and has been observed here as far back as 1899. Whale numbers rise in mid-June and peak in both July and August.

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If you are interested in reading about the humpback whale research accomplished in Glacier Bay, click here

Identification

IMG_0827_edited-2In addition to their massive size and visible “hump” on the back (hence the name!), humpbacks can be identified a few other ways. Though their back is flat with a small dorsal fin on it, while swimming, they will arch their back and fluke, causing the “hump” that we use to identify them.

These mammals are generally dark grey or black with white patches on their stomach, and poses two blowholes atop their head. Blows are also a good sign of humpbacks. Water covering the blowhole is vaporized and the whale exhales on the water’s surface, causing a visual “spout”. This spray can travel anywhere from six to twenty feet high. IMG_0978_edited-2

Flukes (or tails) are used to identify humpbacks in a more unique way. Each pattern of a fluke is equivalent to fingerprints on humans. The parts of the fluke include the tips, notch (middle of tail), and the trailing edge (the nooks and ridges on the end of the tail). From the notch, you can identify the left and right fluke. The trailing edge remains stable during a whales life and is a pretty good identifying factor of the whale. The notch and scaring patterns are also used in identification. Learn more here.

Using body language is an exclusive and incredible way humpbacks communicate with one another. These aerial acrobatic abilities include breaching, tail lobbing, and pectoral fin slapping. These fascinating marine mammals are also known to communicate through sounds. These sounds, and songs, are usually loud,  low-pitched moans, whines, or howls. Whale songs play a role in mating rituals and feeding coordination, as well as social structure, and can last anywhere from minutes to hours. Air is pushed out of it’s blowhole to create these sounds.

Behaviors

Feeding

Instead of teeth, humpbacks have baleen plates, which are bristles that help to catch small prey. These bristles are bunched close enough together to capture prey, but are spread apart enough to allow water to pass through without issue. Their diet includes small aquatic animals, from krill or squid to herring, pollock, and mackerel.

Humpbacks will diet during their winter in Hawaii or Mexico (there, they will mate or give birth if had been pregnant), and migrate to the northern waters of Alaska to feed during the summer months.

Breaching

Breaching is a behavior that scientists and enthusiasts can’t quiet agree on the cause for. Is it for communication? Is it to warn off predators? Or are they “playing”?  During a breach, the whale will shoot out of the water, spin, and land on it’s back. Landing on the back allows more structural support for the giant beauty. This, along with tail and pectoral fin slapping, create a bursting sound to be heard for miles, almost like a canon firing. It is an incredible and unbelievable sight to see a humpback breach.

Pectoral Fin Slapping and Tail Lobbing

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Tail lobbing

 

 

A humpback’s pectoral fins are dark on one side and white underneath, and can be up to fifteen feet long (1/3rd of the whale’s total length). Fin slapping or tail lobbing are behaviors thought to either communicate with other whales or stun surrounding fish for feeding, though during mating season, males use their pectoral fins to  battle for females. Tail lobbing is when the whale will repeatedly slap its fluke against the water.

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Pectoral fin slapping

Spy-Hopping

Spy-hopping occurs when a humpback will emerge the top of it’s body out of water to “take a look around”. They can shoot up from ten to twelve feet, and may spin around to take in their surroundings. Then, gracefully, it will return to the water. Researchers believe this behavior helps with navigation.

Lunge Feeding and Bubble-Netting

IMG_1296_edited-2When humpbacks lunge or bubble net feed, you are truly getting a rare glimpse at the cunning and marvelous abilities they are capable of. They will lunge feed alone or in groups. The whale will lunge through a school of prey with it’s mouth gaping open, followed by it’s outburst through the surface.

Bubble-net feeding is a coordinated group event. Witnessing this behavior is almost metaphysical, and we have been lucky this season to have it occur multiple times for both our guests an staff to witness. During this spectacle, the pod will dive down together, while one will swim around in a circle and blow bubbles. These bubbles confuse and confine the fish. The bubble blower will let out short bursts of “feeding calls”, followed by one long, loud call to signal the pod- “It’s time!”. On this final signal, all of the pod will come through the circle together, mouths gaping open as they catch as much fish as possible. Imagine seven or more humpbacks exploding through the water’s surface, mouths open! The sounds are just incredible, and you can even hear it all without a hydrophone!

We hoped you enjoyed learning a little bit more about one of nature’s most incredible species. Be sure to contact us about how you can see it all for yourself!

Other Facts:

  • The humpback is one of over 80 known species of cetacea
  • When born, humpbacks are about 14 feet long and weigh 2 tons (1 ton = 2,000lbs)
  • Males grow up to 46 feet and weigh up to 25 tons, while females grow up to 49 feet and weigh up to 35 tons
  • They can have 270-400 plates of baleen
  • Their tongue is 2 tons alone
  • Humpbacks can live up to 100 years
  • They can look into their own mouths!
  • Whales lack vocal chords
  • They will consume between a third to half a ton of food a day
  • Gestation is 11-12 months, and are single births. Females bare offspring once every 2-3 years while fertile. Sexual maturity is from 4-7 years.
  • During the winter, humpbacks will fast and live off their body fat, or blubber, that they acquired during feeding season. They focus on migration and mating during the winter, and feeding or hunting during the summer.
  • Though these whales can be seen migrating, hunting and mating in large groups they are generally very solitary and non social creatures that prefer traveling alone or in small groups of two to three
  • The seasonal trek from Hawaii to Alaska and back is 6,000 miles per year
  • Male humpbacks in the North Atlantic can be found singing the same song in unison even when they are miles apart from one another, while males in the North Pacific can be heard singing a different song.
  • The humpback whale is currently listed as an endangered species and is protected against hunting by law

 

Read about how you can see humpbacks while whale watching aboard the m/v TAZ or the Glacier Bay Day Tour. Or, read about how you can kayak with them!

Source: Whalefacts.org and nps.gov

Kayaking Excursions

Insight on one of the must-do activities in South-East Alaska

If kayaking among humpback whales, quiet forest and outstanding scenery is on your bucket list, than this excursion will not disappoint. Southeast Alaska is known for it’s extraordinary sea kayaking. Kayak the Inside Passage and Glacier Bay National Park while learning about the wildlife, geography, and history of this unique area.

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Kayaking in Glacier Bay National Park

All kayaking trips are in double sea kayaks, but booking for a single is also an option. Rain gear, rain boots, life jackets, and kayaking equipment are all included and provided. These kayaking options are suitable for lone wolves and families, beginners, and champs alike. 

Kayaking with the Whales

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Kayak with humpback whales, otters, sea lions, porpoise, and other marine wildlife. Learn to recognize them by their sounds, behavior, and appearance. Explore the tide pools, trek the rain forest of Chicagof Island, and enjoy being one with nature.

These trips start with gearing up and a short orientation on the basics of sea kayaking. To begin your journey, you will take short boat ride from Gustavus to Point Adolphus, where humpback whales are known to feed and socialize. Kayak around the shoreline and observe the wildlife around you.

For lunch, paddle to shore and enjoy the serenity. Hike through old growth forest and let your knowledgeable guide teach you about your surroundings. Then kayak around a little more, until its time to reluctantly say goodbye.

Kayaking in Glacier Bay National Park

Guided or Unguided, Half Day or Full Day

Paddle in the protected and treasured waters of Glacier Bay. Day trips are in the lower part of Bartlett Cove. Both single and double kayaks are available. Half-day trips are available in the morning or afternoon. All trips begin with an orientation.

Guided Trips

IMG_0099_0009_edited-1Kayak with a group of other adventurers and an experienced guide. These waters are protected and full of abundant wildlife, including humpback whales, harbor seals, sea lions, sea otters, Eagles, bears, and more! Just as with kayaking with whales, your guide will teach you all there is to know about Glacier Bay, both on land and by sea.

Unguided Trips

Unguided trips are great for the self-explorers. Paddle at your own pace, stop where you want to, and explore whatever your heart desires. This trip is suitable for beginners as well, since Bartlett Cove is very calm and easy to navigate.

Extended Kayaking and Camping Trips

Guided, 3-8 Days

If a day trip just isn’t enough for you, consider joining a group of others that feel the same. Camping trips include spending time on either Point Adolphus or further into Glacier Bay National Park. Kayaking and camping by the glaciers is also an option. Contact us for more details on this amazing and unique opportunity.

What Should I bring?

Your rain gear (pants, jacket, boots) is provided, as well as kayaking equipment. We recommend that guests bring the following on their excursion:

  • Long underwear (for underneath your clothing)
  • Wool socks
  • Hat and gloves (preferably fleece, or a material that is both warm and does not retain water)
  • Sunglasses
  • Camera equipment, of course
  • A neck or face wrap is optional, to protect from the wind

Additional Notes:

You will be provided with dry bags to keep your electronics and extra clothing in. Dry bags are stored in the kayak, by your feet.

The rain jackets provided will have Velcro on the wrists to keep out water. Gloves are recommended as extra protection from water.

Kayaking equipment includes the kayak, paddles, and “skirts” to seal you into your kayak and protect your legs from water.

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Interested in seeing humpback whales and other wildlife, but not so much into kayaking? Learn about our whale watching excursion on the TAZ and wildlife viewing on the Glacier Bay Day Boat Tour.

Whale Watching Aboard the m/v TAZ

A look at one of our favorite excursions

 

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One of our absolute favorite activities to recommend to guests is whale watching. It is an experience you won’t forget! Glacier Bay is nutrient-rich and a wonderful summer feeding destination for humpback whales. These magnificent creatures migrate from the waters of Hawaii or Mexico during the summer months in search of food, having fasted the entire winter. All summer, they feast and gorge on small fish that thrive in Glacier Bay.

Humpback whales can grow up to 50 feet, and can weigh up to 40 tons! They feed in the waters of Glacier Bay, and other surrounding waters in Alaska and Canada, almost 23 hours a day. Part of why we enjoy watching these graceful giants is because of their acrobatic abilities. Humpbacks are well known for podding up and are very active by breaching (fully emerging from the water), pectoral fin slapping, tail-lobbing, lunge-feeding, spy-hopping, and bubble net feeding.

The man responsible for such unique and entertaining tours is Tod Sebens, captain of the motor vessel TAZ. Tod began his marine career as a Marine Diesel Mechanic in the U.S. Army, and has lived in Alaska for over thirty years. Now residing in Haines, AK, he is equipped with the knowledge and skills to ensure a fun and informative tour, for both guests and the whales being watched. IMG_0765_edited-1

Tod’s locally owned and operated business, the Cross Sound Express, offers a 3 1/2 hour tour, twice a day, full of wildlife viewing and great company. The boat features heated indoor and covered outdoor viewing, as well as a bathroom, and offers coffee, hot chocolate, snacks, educational books and field guides, and binoculars.

Visit Point Adolphis, the feeding grounds of humpback whales, and learn about their behaviors. Try to identify them by observing their flukes, or, listen to the incredible sounds that humpbacks make for communication using the underwater hydrophone. Other wildlife to search for include Stellar sea lions, otters, harbor porpoises, bald eagles and other sea birds, or even orcas or Minke whales.

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More Information: 

  • Tours offered are 8:30AM-12:00PM or 12:30PM-4:00PM
  • The TAZ is designed for wildlife viewing and is 50ft, aluminum high-speed, equipped with proper safety equipment
  • The boat holds up to 28 passengers
  • Checklist:
    • Warm clothes (fleece, wool socks, long underwear)
    • Raingear
    • Gloves, hats, and sunglasses
    • Camera equipment
  • Other bookings include weddings, kayaking services, and group charters for private events

As always, feel free to contact us with any questions you may have. We also offer private whale watching tours on smaller boats.

Learn more about humpback whales and why they are important to Glacier Bay here.

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Glacier Bay NP Day Boat Tour

A full-day guided tour through the West Arm of Glacier Bay

Of all the activities we like to recommend to guests, the Glacier Bay Day Boat Tour is an absolute must. We believe this tour encompasses what Glacier Bay is truly about. From scouting for Alaskan wildlife to admiring massive glaciers, this tour is thoroughly informative about the history, geology, and current ecosystems of our favorite National Park. View the map here.

The tour begins early morning in Bartlett Cove, where you will board an elegant  and comfortable high-speed catamaran. The best seats in the house can be found on the second floor, right-hand side (it goes along the coast as you travel and it is a convenient side to be on when wildlife is spotted ashore). The boat offers coffee, hot chocolate, fruits and granola bars for passengers, and offers candy bars, sodas, and alcohol for purchase. A mid-day snack of smoked salmon chowder is offered before approaching your first glacier- and it tastes delightful! Lunch of chips and sandwiches are served around noon, and cookies are served as a nice treat towards the end of the tour. IMG_0655_edited-2.jpg

Throughout the day, you will experience the changing surroundings, from developed forests to lichen coated rocks near the tidewater glaciers, as you head up through the West arm of the park.

First stop is South Marble Island. Here, you’ll want to walk outside to the viewing deck so you can hear (and smell!) the Stellar Sea Lions. The island is small and isolated, and is a great spot for the sea lions to haul ashore between feedings. Nearby, you will scan the rocks and waters for various Alaskan seabirds, such as the famous Tufted and Horned Puffins. The Common Murre, Pelagic Cormorants, and Black-legged Kittiwakes can also be found.

As you cruise along, be sure to scan the sea and shore for wildlife. Look for humpbacks, orcas, or sea otters. On the shoreline: is it a bear, or a rock? Along the way you may find black or grizzly bear, wolves, or moose. Stop at Gloomy Knob and search the mountains for large, off-white patterns- Mountain Goats!

As you approach the glaciers, notice the changes in your surroundings. Look at the shoreline and notice the change of both vegetation and geology. Icebergs from the tidewater glaciers begin to surround the boat. Finally, Margerie Glacier comes into view. Margerie advances anywhere from 12 to 14 feet a day, and calves frequently. Listen for the crackling sound of ice breaking, or “White Thunder”, as the Tlingits say. To the right, you’ll notice a long wall of black- The Grand Pacific. This mighty receding glacier once filled the entire bay, even reaching the Icy Strait in the 1700’s. The blackness hiding the glacier’s once beautiful blue coloring is rocky moraine.

After spending some time admiring and learning about Margerie and the Grand Pacific, the tour takes you to admire other glaciers nearby. Occasionally, the boat may turn into John Hopkins Inlet. (We say “occasionally” because during particular months, harbor seals will haul on the icebergs to have their pups- and for their protection, boats are not aloud to disturb). Johns Hopkins displays some of the most astounding terrain in Alaska. Above the inlet is Mount Orville and Wilbur, standing at more than 10,000 feet. Floating ice surrounds the glacier, as if its nature’s own form of protection for the habitat.

Lamplugh is the final glacial stop. It is about 160 feet high and 3/4 mile wide. A recent landslide has changed the appearance of this subtle beauty. Look in the surrounding waters for kayakers. Admire the large blocks of ice sitting on the shore. After Lamplugh, enjoy a peaceful ride back to the dock.

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After arriving back at Bartlett Cove, we always encourage our guests to explore the grounds. Take a left at the top of the dock, down a dirt road leading to Alaskan monuments. On the way, you will see a handmade Tlingit canoe, a humpback whale skeleton, and end at the Tlingit Tribal House. Inside Glacier Bay Lodge, you will find a small museum on the second floor, displaying all you need to know about Glacier Bay’s ecosystems.

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We are confident that the Glacier Bay Day Tour will be a trip you will never forget! 

Other information:

  • Passengers board at 7AM and depart at 7:30AM, and return at 3:30PM
  • A Park Ranger narrates the tour and is available to answer questions
  • There are tables on the downstairs level and serving trays on the seats upstairs
  • There is a viewing deck both behind and on the top level of the boat
  • The boat has two marine toilets available for passengers
  • There is no smoking aboard the vessel
  • Binoculars are available for use
  • Vegetarian meals are provided per request (just let us know during booking)
  • We suggest you bring:
    • Warm clothing, such as a fleece, long underwear, wool socks, and a jacket
    • Hats, gloves, sunglasses
    • Camera equipment
    • Regular tennis-shoes or hiking shoes are OK, as you will not be leaving the boat
  • Rangers lead walks through the Forest Loop Trail at various times throughout the day. Be sure to ask us for a schedule of events, if you are interested in joining!

Interested in a smaller, more personalized tour? We can arrange for you to take a private glacier tour, which allows you to get a little bit closer or spend a little more time where you want. Contact us for more information!

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